Many people have had a hand in the making of this book, and it gives me much pleasure, at last, to be able to acknowledge my indebtedness to them. I owe particular thanks to John Israel, Irwin Scheiner, Jeffrey Wasserstrom, and Madeleine Zelin, each of whom read the entire manuscript with care and, along with welcome encouragement, identified potential problems and furnished constructive suggestions for addressing them. For helpful counsel on individual parts of the book, I am grateful to Prasenjit Duara, Chang-tai Hung, Michael Hunt, Roderick MacFarquhar, Laura McDaniel, Susan Naquin, James Watson, and Ruby Watson. I also profited from audience comments following talks at Colgate, Harvard, and Wesleyan universities, and from the advice of participants in a conference on the Boxer movement held at Jinan in october 1990.
Early on in the research, Mingteh Tsou assisted in obtaining valuable Cultural Revolution-era newspaper and periodical articles from China. Mr. Tsou also put me in touch with Zhu Junzhou of the Shanghai Library, who tracked down and supplied me with rare political cartoons from the same period. At the point at which I was just beginning to familiarize myself with Boxer sources, Gail Hershatter alerted me to the existence of unpublished oral history materials from the Tianjin area, many of which, through the generosity of Chen Zhenjiang and others at Nankai University, I was able to acquire copies of on a trip to China in 1987. During the same trip I benefited greatly from talks with Lu Yao of Shandong University, one of China's premier historians of the Boxer movement.
I want to extend my thanks to a number of archivists for facilitating my use of the collections in their charge. Especially helpful in this regard were Martha Lund Smalley and Joan R. Duffy of the Divinity School Library of Yale University and Michael Miller, formerly curator of personal papers at the Marine Corps Historical Center, Washington, D.C. The custodians of Harvard's Houghton Library made my reading in the American Board of