INDEX
absolutism, 73, 75, 79-81, 84, 93-94, 114-116, 122, 130, 148, 169, 173. See also thresholds
acts as evaluative focal point, 198-199, 204, 214, 238, 242, 257, 268-271, 272, 277, 281, 300
in consequentialism. See consequentialism, act
in egoism. See egoism, act vs. rule
aid to others, 132-135, 150-151, 154-163, 207, 250, 266, 275-277, 289, 293. See also options
allowing harm, 94-100, 102-105, 168. See also doing harm
animals (nonhuman), 7, 47-48, 170-172, 287-288
applied ethics, 3, 19
Ari, 121, 124, 126
autonomy, 106, 111-113, 249-251, 291-293
average view, 46-47, 61
beneficence, 133, 250, 277. See also aid to others; weighted beneficence
Captain Hook and the Lost Boys, 86
character traits. See virtues
Chuck, chopping up. See organ transplant case
claims. See rights
commonsense morality
and consequentialism, 67-69, 118, 157-158
and constraints, 72-75, 78
and contractarianism, 249-253
defined, 25
as deontological, 73-75, 78, 118
and egoism, 63-64, 196-202
and foundational theories, 302-303
and ideal observer theories, 276
and options, 160, 163-166
and reflection theories, 291-293
and universalizability, 266
compensation, 122-123, 128-132, 150, 177
conflicting duties, 180-183, 201, 211. See also moral dilemmas
consent, 88-90, 116, 121, 147-148, 161-162, 173, 292
consequences. See goodness of outcomes
consequentialism
act, 214-223, 239
and the calculation objection, 66-68
and choice of focal point, 214, 223-224, 238-239
and constraints, 72-78, 216-218, 220, 221-222, 225
and contractarianism, 252
as demanding too much, 154-161
direct, 238-239
and doing vs. allowing, 94-100
vs. egoism, 63-64
at the factoral level, 60-63, 213-215, 218-219
at the foundational level, 213-224
and ideal observer theories, 275-277
and maximizing, 218-224
objective vs. subjective, 65-66
and options, 160-161, 219-221, 225
as permitting too much, 75-77, 153, 157-160
and respect, 221-222

-331-

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Normative Ethics
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page v
  • Contents ix
  • Acknowledgments xi
  • 1 - Preliminaries 1
  • Part One - Factors 23
  • 2 - The God 25
  • 3 - Doing Harm 70
  • 4 - Other Constraints 106
  • 5 - Further Factors 153
  • Part Two - Foundations 187
  • 6 - Teleological Foundations 189
  • 7 - Deontological Foundations 240
  • Suggested Readings 305
  • References 321
  • About the Book and Author 329
  • Index 331
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