THIS book has taken eight years to write and on the way many debts have been incurred. In particular I wish to express my thanks to the Nuclear History Program for their generous grant which paid for research assistance over a two-year period. I am also indebted to the Higher Education Funding Council of Wales for financial assistance to the Department of International Politics at Aberystwyth which provided further research support and allowed me to take sabbatical leave in 1993-4 to complete the writing of this book.
Numerous individuals have, at various stages of the project, provided valuable advice and encouragement which have been greatly appreciated. Thanks are particularly due to Professor Robert O'Neil of All Souls College, Oxford; Dr Ian Clark of Selwyn College, Cambridge; Professor Lawrence Freedman of King's College, London; Dr Martin Navias of King's College, London; Dr Beatrice Heuser of King's College, London; Lorna Arnold; Sir Michael Quinlan; Air Vice-Marshal Willie MacRae; my colleagues Dr Len Scott and Dr Stephen Twigge, and to Professor John Garnett for his friendship and support when I needed it most. Special thanks are also due to another colleague, Dr Nicholas Wheeler, who read the manuscript and made numerous valuable comments. Not all of these individuals will agree with my conclusions but I have benefited enormously from their advice.
I also wish to express my gratitude to my three research assistants, Mark Smith, Kerry Longhurst, and Alan Macmillan, without whose uncomplaining and painstaking help in so many different areas this book would probably have taken another eight years to write! I am also grateful to Kerry Longhurst, in particular, for her work on the index.
Crown copyright material in the Public Record Office is reproduced by permission of the Controller of Her Majesty's Stationery Office. I wish to thank Pat Andrews of the Cabinet Office and Mr I. D. Goode of the Ministry of Defence for their patience and courteous assistance in dealing with my requests to declassify