Political Concepts and Political Theories

By Gerald F. Gaus | Go to book overview

is necessary to protect freedom while insisting it does not necessarily involve power over others, whereas socialists insist that it inherently involves liberty-limiting power. In Section 5.4, the relation of liberty and law was examined. Starting with the basic classical liberal claim that all law, qua coercive restraint, limits liberty, we went on to examine several proposals that seek to show how, properly understood, general justified legal restraints do not limit civil freedom. Finally, we briefly examined Burke's conservative, antirationalist view, which abjures a general analysis of freedom, locating the important liberties of a people in their historical-legal tradition.


Notes
1.
T. H. Green, "On the Different Senses of 'Freedom' As Applied to the Will and the Moral Progress of Man," in Paul Harris and John Morrow, eds., Green's Lectures on the Principles of Political Obligation ( Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986), p. 235.
2.
R. H. Tawney, Equality ( New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1931), p. 221.
3.
John Rawls, A Theory of Justice ( Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1971), p. 204.
4.
See, for example, Kai Nielsen, Equality and Liberty: A Defense of Radical Egalitarianism ( Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Allanheld, 1985), p. 84.
5.
Richard Norman, Free and Equal: A Philosophical Examination of Political Values ( Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987), p. 44.
6.
F. A. Hayek, The Constitution of Liberty ( London: Routledge, 1960), pp. 17-18.
7.
See Steven Lukes, Power: A Radical View ( London: Macmillan, 1974).
8.
Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, Michael Oakeshott, ed., ( Oxford: Blackwell, 1948), p. 56 (Book 1, chap. 10).
9.
See S. I. Benn, "Power," in Paul Edwards, ed., The Encyclopedia of Philosophy ( New York: Macmillan and the Free Press, 1965).
10.
See here Felix Oppenheim, Dimensions of Freedom ( New York: St. Martin's, Press, 1961).
11.
Ibid., pp. 82-83.
12.
Bertrand Russell, Power ( London: Unwin Books, 1960), p. 25.
13.
See Christian Bay, The Structure of Freedom ( New York: Atheneum, 1965), p. 257; William E. Connolly, The Terms of Political Discourse, 2nd ed. ( Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983), chap. 3.
14.
Lukes, Power: A Radical View, p. 34.
15.
Connolly, The Terms of Political Discourse, p. 106.
16.
See Kristján Kristjánsson, Social Freedom: The Responsibility View ( Cambbridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), pp. 150ff.
17.
Connolly, The Terms of Political Discourse, p. 106.
18.
Harold J. Laski, The Rise of European Liberalism ( London: George Allen and Unwin, 1936), p. 239.
19.
Again, we need to stress that political theories are complex, and can exemplify different sorts of connections. See Kristjánsson, Social Freedom, chap. 6.

-124-

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