be effective contributors. The allied ideas of civil justice and facilitatory social justice were also examined. I stressed that although a theory of justice emphasizing merit is often associated with classical liberalism, and although selection of civil service positions by merit has been endorsed by classical liberals, the generalization of selection by merit to all social positions presupposes a view of society that is much closer to Hobhouse's revisionist liberalism than to Hayek's classical liberalism. Contrasted to Hobhouse's collectivist desert theory is Rawls's pluralist egalitarian revisionist liberal conception of justice (Section 8.4). For Rawls--and here he follows the classical liberal tradition--justice is composed of the rules that free and equal people would accept. But in Rawls's version of the social contract, the equality rather than the freedom of the parties is salient; knowing nothing about their specific natures, values, or way of life, they select principles that stress their equality, especially in the distribution of wealth, income, and opportunities. We now turn to examining some leading nonliberal theories of justice.