EARLY AMERICAN STUDIES: CLIFFORD SHAW AND THE CHICAGO SCHOOL
A LTHOUGH the theories of Lombroso achieved a truly remarkable degree of acceptance among those actively concerned in the study of crime, they were not immune from criticism. The most effective answer to this particular variety of scientific determinism came partly in the painstaking work of Goring, and partly in the results of psychological inquiry into criminal motivation. Perhaps it is significant, nevertheless, that the earliest effective criticisms of Lombroso were of a sociological nature, of which he clearly took note in his later work,1 notwithstanding the fact that his revised theories virtually destroyed the validity of the original.
In 1886 Tarde and Lacassagne founded in Lyon the "Archives d'Anthropologie Criminelle", a journal in which much of this criticism was voiced. In his books,2 Tarde formulates a theory which though perhaps not without a psychological flavour, is nevertheless, sociological in character. The statistical regularity of social data, he argued implied the non-existence and lack of exercise of free will, man living in society imitates far more than he innovates.3 Criminal methods, for example, are disseminated by means of press publicity, but social imitation in general is in proportion to the degree to which men are in close contact____________________