Debating War and Peace: Media Coverage of U.S. Intervention in the Post-Vietnam Era

By Jonathan Mermin | Go to book overview

Seven
Conclusion

IN THEIR coverage of U.S. intervention in the post-Vietnam era, the New York Times, World News Tonight, and the MacNeil/Lehrer Newshour have made no independent contribution (except at the margins) to foreignpolicy debate in the United States. The spectrum of debate in Washington, instead, has determined the spectrum of debate in the news. The evidence supports not just the correlation version of the indexing hypothesis, but the marginalization version. Coverage of critical viewpoints on U.S. interventions does not increase from a reasonable baseline in the news when U.S. policy generates conflict in Washington, but is marginalized in the news when official actors are united (see table 5.1 for an overview of the evidence). The evidence also shows that journalists could have reported critical perspectives in the Washington consensus cases, if foreign-policy experts outside of Washington and interested, engaged citizens had been consulted. Here I offer some concluding observations on the relationship of the journalism described in this book to the First Amendment ideal of a press independent of government, some prescriptions for independent journalism, and some reflections on the impact of the news on U.S. foreign policy.


Neither a Watchdog Nor a Mirror

Under one model of an independent press, the press is independent of government if journalists are free to report criticism of public officials and their policies. American journalists have this freedom. But what has been done with it in practice? In assessing the independence of the American media, this is the fundamental question that must be addressed.

If critical viewpoints on U.S. foreign policy are not reported in the news unless they have been expressed inside the government first, then in practice the press is independent of the president, but not the government. When Potter Stewart writes that the First Amendment establishes “a fourth institution outside the Government as an additional check on the three official branches,”1 and Hugo Black declares that in the First Amend-

____________________
1
Quoted in Bollinger, Images of Free Press, p. 177, n. 44.

-143-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Debating War and Peace: Media Coverage of U.S. Intervention in the Post-Vietnam Era
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Debating War and Peace - Media Coverage of U.S. Intervention in the Post-Vietnam Era *
  • Contents *
  • Tables ix
  • Preface xi
  • Debating War and Peace *
  • One - Introduction 3
  • Two - The Spectrum of Debate in the News 17
  • Three - Grenada and Panama 36
  • Four - The Buildup to the Gulf War 66
  • Five - The Rule and Some Exceptions 100
  • Six - Television News and the Foreign-Policy Agenda 120
  • Seven - Conclusion 143
  • Appendix 154
  • Index 157
Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 162

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.