Association, New York
Barriers established by male-dominated reform organizations resulted in women reformers seeking to create their own organizations in the nineteenth century (Morton, 1995). The Women's Prison Association (WPA) was established in 1844 in an effort to facilitate women making the transition from prison back to the community. The women who established the WPA were very unusual for their time: “WPA is a wonderful organization with a very rich history. It was founded in 1844 by a group of visionaries who were associated with the Quakers, and concerned about prison conditions. One of the things they did was to found the first halfway house for women in the country…. The women originally involved in the organization did everything from running this house as a volunteer labor of love, to getting on the train and going to Albany to advocate for legislation to create a separate prison for women” (Jacobs, 1997, p. 44).
The WPA is widely considered one of the leading organizations in establishing services for female ex-offenders in the country. The organization has a staff of approximately one hundred and a budget of $5.5 million, with 20 percent of that derived from foundations and donations and the rest from government. The establishment of the Isaac T. Hopper Home provided housing and training for women during the nineteenth century, helping more than 450 women offenders during the first three