JACOBIN AND COMMUNIST
IN the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries France provided the continent of Europe with its model of monarchical power and courtly elegance; in the nineteenth she provided the model of popular revolution. The myth of the French Revolution was the inspiration of all those who in the years between the end of the Napoleonic Empire in 1815 and the revolutionary upheavals of 1848 sought to bring about radical changes in the established political and social order. Paris in those years, even though it was the seat first of the restored Bourbons and then of the "bourgeois monarchy" of Louis Philippe, remained the Mecca of all the revolutionaries of Europe, for it was the city which possessed within itself the tradition of the Great Revolution and continued to be the hotbed of radical political thought.
It is at first sight something of a paradox that a historical period which had violently broken with the traditional values and institutions of its society should have itself created so powerful a tradition. But so it was; for those to whom the brief rule of the French revolutionary democracy was not a dire example of what to avoid it was the pattern of success to be regained. Europe might have fallen back under the domination of royal autocracies or narrow oligarchies, but what had been done could be done again and the sovereignty of the people once more established in all its power and glory. The Bastille could again be captured; there could be another Robespierre and another Marat. Those who in the eighteen forties were moved by the ideal of democracy—an ideal