SOCIAL DEMOCRACY AND THE
THE failure of a political enterprise intended to bring about a fundamental change in the order of society can have one of three different effects on a man who has undertaken it. He may go on trying to do the same thing in the same way, always hoping that he will have better luck next time. Or he may come to the conclusion that his whole effort is futile and that he may as well accept the established order of things. Or he may continue to adhere to his faith, but recognize that the difficulties are greater than he had previously supposed and that he must adopt a more gradual method of approach to a goal which has receded into the far distance.
It was the third of these courses that Marx and Engels took after the year 1850, and in consequence there is a great difference between the Marxism of the years before that date and the later Marxism which was to become the creed of the Social Democratic Party of Germany. What is called Leninism, the outlook characteristic of all modern Communists, at any rate before the Twentieth Congress of the Soviet Communist Party in 1956, is essentially a reversion to the older Marxism, the doctrine of the Communist Manifesto of 1848, as against that of the Introduction written by Engels in 1895 to the work of Marx The Class Struggles in France written in 1850. These reflections by Engels towards the close of the nineteenth century were in effect a repudiation of the bold words of the Communist Manifesto that the Communists "openly declare