THE variant of Communism known as Maoism has from its inception had a double character; it has been in part a genuine ideological opposition to the form of Communism which has prevailed in the Soviet Union since the death of Stalin, but it has also in part arisen from a clash of national interests and of even more fundamental ethnic attitudes between Russia and China. The ideological disapproval of Russian "revisionism" would probably have grown in Peking with the development of Soviet policies under Khrushchev even if there had been no Soviet actions which seemed to the Chinese to disregard their national interests and imply a will to relegate them permanently to an inferior status. But since there were such actions the bitterness of a national enmity was added to the animosity of an ideological conflict. The Maoists themselves would not indeed distinguish between the two aspects; they would say that Soviet actions at the expense of Chinese national interests were simply an inevitable consequence of the corruption of the CPSU by a revisionist ideology. But behind the doctrinal controversies there were on both sides factors of national pride with overtones of chauvinist arrogance which set the two régimes on a collision course in spite of their common profession of the Marxist-Leninist faith.
For an understanding of the ideological divergence between Peking and Moscow the chronology is of fundamental importance. As has already been pointed out, 1 post-Stalin Russia was dominated by Communists of the second genera-____________________