Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture

By John S. Bowman | Go to book overview

China
ARTS, CULTURE, THOUGHT, AND RELIGION

PREHISTORIC AND LEGENDARY CHINA: 1,960,000–2208 B.C.

5,000–3,000B.C.: The Yangshao culture produces a distinctive painted pottery, reddish with black designs. Some Yangshao pottery vessels are marked with signs representing makers or owners, indicating that a form of proto-writing is emerging here.

In the settled farming areas below the south bend of the Yellow River, villagers decorate their painted pottery jars with animal and plant designs.

4000–2000B.C.: The Lungshan culture makes a pottery that is thin, black, and burnished. At Erlitou, remains from about 2000 B.C. include palace foundations, stone carvings, bronze and ceramic ritual vessels, royal burials, and even human sacrifices.

2698–2599B.C.: Legend credits the Yellow Emperor's recordkeeper, Cangxie, with inventing the written Chinese language.

2300–2200B.C.: Tradition claims that the Yaodian (Canon of Yao), outlining the principal events of the third millennium B.C., is written down at this time, but modern scholars agree that it was written many centuries later.


THE THREE DYNASTIES (XIA, SHANG, ZHOU): 2208–249 B.C.

1700–1600B.C.: The first bronze vessels appear. The Shang vessels are often used in sacrifices and burials. Possession of them is a sign of wealth.

1384–1111B.C.: The Shang use oracle bones—inscribed cattle shoulder bones and turtle shells—for divination. Some 100,000 bones will be excavated at Anyang between 1927 and 1938. They reveal the earliest known written form of the Chinese language, with some 1,500 characters deciphered.

c. 1000B.C.: The Chinese written vocabulary reaches three thousand characters. The first known Chinese poetry is believed to date from the Early Zhou dynasty. Poems from the Book of Songs (Shijing) are sung at important court ceremonials.

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Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture *
  • Contents v
  • Consultants and Contributors vii
  • Introduction ix
  • Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture *
  • Part One - East Asia 1
  • China - Political History 3
  • China - Arts, Culture, Thought, and Religion 79
  • China - Science-Technology, Economics, and Everyday Life 99
  • Japan - Political History 118
  • Japan - Arts, Culture, Thought, and Religion 162
  • Japan - Science-Technology, Economics, and Everyday Life 179
  • Korea 193
  • Taiwan 225
  • Hong Kong 236
  • Macau (Macao) 244
  • Part Two - South Asia 250
  • India - Political History 251
  • India - Arts, Culture, Thought, and Religion 325
  • India - Science-Technology, Economics, and Everyday Life 355
  • Pakistan 370
  • Bangladesh 379
  • Bhutan 384
  • Maldives 389
  • Nepal 393
  • Sri Lanka (Ceylon) 400
  • Part Three - Southeast Asia 408
  • Brunei 409
  • Cambodia 415
  • Indonesia 436
  • Laos 452
  • Malaysia 465
  • Myanmar (Burma) 476
  • The Philippines 488
  • Singapore 501
  • Thailand 506
  • Vietnam 521
  • Part Four - Central Asia 545
  • Mongolia 547
  • Central Asian Republics 566
  • Tibet 577
  • Appendix 1 - National/Independence Days 583
  • Appendix 2 - Scientific-Technological Achievements in Asia 590
  • Appendix 3 - Asian History: a Chronological Overview 603
  • Index 679
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