Tidewater, Standard, and long-distance pipelines
Empire had barely capitulated to Standard in September, 1877, when the Producers' Union, long floundering with ineffective shutdown movements, announced a new organizing program to fight the latest "crowning iniquity of the monopoly."1 As it evolved, the program involved a three- pronged attack on Standard and its relationships with the railroads: first, a renewed attempt to organize an effective shutdown movement; second, an appeal to the United States Congress and the Pennsylvania Legislature and to the courts for legal action; third, participation in still another pipeline project that would link the Regions with Baltimore.
The shutdown movement failed completely. Although prices had declined steadily through 1877, the prolific Bradford fields offered a good