Military Science and Game
All great captains have done great things only by conforming to the rules and natural principles of war.... whatever may have been the audacity of their enterprises and the extent of their success, they have succeeded only by conformity to rules and principles.
—NAPOLEON, MAXIM CXII
I beat the Russians every time, but that gets me nowhere.
—NAPOLEON, Moscow, 1812
Some years ago in Baltimore, a bridge tournament had to share a facility with a kennel show. Halfway through, the host issued a bulletin: Although the barking and yelping were deplorable, the dogs were bearing with it very well. Some games, then, could be said to be the moral equivalent of war. Or perhaps the immoral equivalent. Games are also part of a spectrum from card and board games, through sports, to lethal conflict. The Duke of Wellington said that the battle of Waterloo had been won on the playing fields of Eton. 1
The common feature within this spectrum is that players vie to win. The contest unfolds on a field of some kind: table, stadium, or continent. Tactics and strategy are employed. Rules