Beyond the Firm: Business Groups in International and Historical Perspective

By Takao Shiba; Masahiro Shimotani | Go to book overview

Sanwa complex in 1967, and that of the Dai-Ichi Kangin complex as late as 1977. Third, the leadership role in the formation of the later three can be seen to have rested very clearly with the banks, namely Fuji Bank (formerly Yasuda Bank of the Yasuda zaibatsu), Sanwa Bank, and Dai-Ichi Kangyo Bank (formed in 1971 through the merger of the Dai-Ichi Bank and the Nippon Kangyo Bank). The fact that the banks initiated formation of the complexes, however, does not mean that they obtained the power to run the complexes as they pleased. Additionally, the mutual shareholdings of the later three are rather weaker than in the cases of the former zaibatsu complexes, as are the co-operative ties in the presidents' councils ( Okumura 1988: 217-53).

The Mitsui, Mitsubishi, and Sumitomo complexes have maintained their top positions even since the appearance of the latter three, but it should be noted in closing that even the ties binding Mitsui, Mitsubishi, and Sumitomo are weaker today than they were in the 1950s and 1960s.


REFERENCES

Asajima, S. ( 1968), Mitsubishi zaibatsu keiei-shi [A Business History of the Mitsubishi Zaibatsul, Tokyo: Ochanomizu Shobo.

----- ( 1983), Senkan-ki Sumitomo zaibatsu keiei-shi [A Business History of the Sumitomo Zaibatsu in the Interwar Period], Tokyo: Tokyo Daigaku Shuppankai.

Bank of Japan Research Agency (ed.) ( 1973), Nihon kinyu-shi shiryo [Japanese Financial History Materials], Showa edn., 34, Tokyo.

Edo, H. ( 1986), Watashi no Mitsui Showa-shi [A Personal History of Mitsui in the Showa Era], Tokyo: Toyo Keizai Shimpo-sha.

----- ( 1994), Mitsui to ayunda 70 nen [70 Years with Mitsui], Tokyo: Asahi Shimbun-sha.

Fair Trade Commission Economic Department (n.d.), Shuyo-kaisha no kabushiki toshi to kyu-shuyo-zaibatsu no genkyo ni kan suru shiryo [Documents Concerning the Stock Investments of Major Companies and the Current State of Major Former Zaibatsu], Tokyo.

Holding Company Liquidation Commission (ed.) ( 1951a), Nihon zaibatsu to sono kaitai [Japanese Zaibatsu and their Dissolution], Tokyo.

----- (ed.) ( 1951b), Nihon zaibatsu to sono kaitai shiryo [Japanese Zaibatsu and their Dissolution: Documents], Tokyo.

Kabushiki nenkan [Stocks Annual] ( 1938), Tokyo.

Memorandum (1945a), From the Japanese Minister of Finance to SCAP, 4 Nov.

----- ( 1945b) From SCAP to the Japanese government, 6 Nov.

Ministry of Finance, Public Finance History Office (ed.) ( 1977), Showa zaisei-shi; shusen kara kowa made [A History of Public Finance in the Showa Era; From the End of the War to Normalization], ii, Tokyo: Toyo Keizai Shimpo-sha.

----- (ed.) ( 1982), Showa zaisei-shi; shusen kara kowa made [A History of Public Finance in the Showa Era; From the End of the War to Normalization], vii, Tokyo: Toyo Keizai Shimpo-sha.

-86-

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Beyond the Firm: Business Groups in International and Historical Perspective
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Acknowledgements v
  • Contents vii
  • List of Contributors ix
  • List of Figures xi
  • List of Tables xiii
  • Introduction 1
  • 1 - The History and Structure of Business Groups in Japan 5
  • Part I - The Corporate Complex 29
  • 2 - Diversification Process and the Ownership Structure of Samsung Chaebol 31
  • Introduction 31
  • Notes 55
  • 3 - From Zaibatsu to Corporate Complexes 59
  • Introduction 59
  • Conclusion 85
  • References 86
  • 4 - Structure and Strategy of Belgian Business Groups (1920-1990) 88
  • Conclusion 104
  • References 105
  • Part II - The Corporate Group 107
  • 5 - Growth Via Politics: Business Groups Italian-Style 109
  • Introduction 109
  • Notes 132
  • References 133
  • 6 - Business Groups in the German Electrical Industry 135
  • 7 - A Path to the Corporate Group in Japan: Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Its Group Formation 167
  • Introduction 167
  • Conclusion 181
  • Notes 182
  • Bibliography 182
  • Part III - Assembler-Supplier Relations 185
  • 8 'Japanese-Style' Supplier Relationships in the American Auto Industry, 1895-1920 187
  • Conclusion - Japanese-Style' Supplier Relations? 208
  • References 213
  • 9 - The Subcontracting System and Business Groups: the Case of the Japanese Automotive Industry 215
  • Conclusion 239
  • Notes 240
  • References 241
  • Part IV - Japanese Business Groups 243
  • 10 - The Organizational Logic of Business Groups: Evidence from the Zaibatsu 245
  • Conclusion 270
  • Notes 271
  • References 272
  • 11 - Learning to Work Together: Adaptation and the Japanese Firm 274
  • References 288
  • Afterword 291
  • Notes 295
  • Index 297
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