[The fifteen million Negroes and the five or six million Jews represent large minorities in the United States. The forty-five thousand Filipinos represent one of the smallest minority groups and are concentrated almost entirely on the West Coast. The Filipinos are one of the newest minorities in this country, although they came into a tradition of already developed attitudes. Not only did they meet the general tendency of Americans to look down on other peoples, but they faced the special attitudes that whites had toward Orientals. Whereas American Negroes trace their ancestry predominantly from the Negroid racial stock, and the Jews from the Caucasoid racial stock, the Filipinos are Mongoloids. The first representatives of this great racial stock on this continent were the American Indians, who, of course, were the original inhabitants. Although there is some biological similarity between Indians and Filipinos, there is no cultural connection at all. Therefore, the Filipinos were not associated with the Indians in white peoples' minds. The Filipinos were, however, associated with the Chinese and Japanese who preceded them in migrating from Asia to North America. The already existing antagonisms against the latter groups, which we shall consider in subsequent sections, were attached to the Filipinos.
Professor Grayson Kirk, now Acting President of Columbia University, presents a succinct summary of the legal and social problems of Filipino Americans.]
Extensive Filipino migration to the continental United States is largely a matter of the last two decades. In 1920, after two decades of American rule in the Philippines, the census indicated only 5,603 Filipinos residing in this country. A decade later there were 45,208, and present estimates agree on 60,000 to 65,000 as the probable number here at the present time. The number of Filipinos residing in Hawaii is somewhat in excess of this last figure.
Unlike many of the minority groups in the United States, the Filipinos have not developed any great social stability. They constitute a mobile labor force, concentrated largely on the west coast but ranging from southern California to Alaska. This mobility is so great that the workers follow the harvests throughout____________________