"those who have a certain skill or education"; 4: a systematic derogation of minority group members in the behavior and language of majority group persons toward them, ranging from the use of epithets to the avoidance of physical contact with anything a minority person may have touched; 5: requirements that minority group members act in a servile manner when in the presence of majority group persons; 6: prohibitions or restrictions against intermarriage; 7: the tendency of persons of the majority group to regard persons of the minority group as inferior and/or dangerous and to manifest this attitude in obvious or subtle ways.
All racial minorities experience most of the kinds of social discrimination, and among the religious minorities, the Jews do also. In the case of Negroes in the South, social discrimination is made the keystone of all other forms of discrimination. Social discrimination, because it is far more personal than the other forms, often has the greatest implications for the personality development of minority group members.
Because the types of discrimination are so numerous, the pages that follow will be able to illustrate only a few of the existing possibilities. Descriptions will be presented of the situation of many minority groups, even though better illustrations may be available in the literature of discrimination against one minority group.
Robert C. Weaver
[From the Civil War through the 1980's, Negroes increasingly were limited in the kind of work they could seek. Under slavery, Negroes in the South had almost a monopoly of skilled jobs. By the 1930's, Negroes were almost restricted to one of three kinds of occupation: (1) personal service (including entertainment), (2) farming, (3) unskilled labor. The only exceptions to these lower caste occupations occurred when Negroes were performing services for other Negroes. During the Second World War, the conditions and situation changed drastically, owing primarily to the tremendous need for manpower and to the President's Fair Employment Practice Committee, which investigated violations of the Executive Order that no manufac-