centers. At the same time, their inu status within their own racial group was confirmed in the minds of many of their fellow evac- uees, and they were even blamed for the evacuation itself. There were, however, no outbreaks against them in the assembly centers, although accumulated resentments later led to acts of violence in relocation projects.
Assembly centers had been planned for use for very short periods. Their sole purpose was to serve as points of concentration and confinement until the War Relocation Authority could take over. But owing to wartime difficulties in construction and transportation, the period of assembly-center operation extended through 224 days. The largest center, at the Santa Anita race track "had the longest period of occupancy: 215 days, with an average population of 12,919 for this entire period. During most of the period, the population of Santa Anita was more than 18,000." Here, as in other assembly centers, life in converted horse stalls and hastily constructed barracks presented many difficulties. As the Army report states: "For extended occupancy by men, women and children whose movements were necessarily restricted, the use of facilities of this character is not highly desirable."
Up to this point, while the evacuees had been subjected to an extraordinarily tortuous experience they had manifested no overt mass resistance to authority. In many centers a nebulous protest movement developed but in only one (Santa Anita) was there a disturbance of serious proportions. This and the latent protests are significant as setting the pattern later to be repeated with variations in one relocation project after another. . . .
Emory S. Bogardus
[One of the touchiest situations that Japanese Americans had to face was their return to the West Coast in 1945. Race prejudice had been built up against them for over forty years. Non-Japanese who had taken over Japanese homes and businesses had a vested interest in opposing the return of the original owners. Although many moved from the relocation camps to the cities of the Midwest, the majority returned to their original homes on the West Coast. Professor Emory S.