CHAPTER III
LANGUAGE (continued)

I
THE CENTUM GROUP AND THE SATEM GROUP

P HILOLOGISTS have made a first classification of the Indo-European dialects into two groups according to the way in which the initial consonant of the word meaning hundred developed. The word began with a palatal, which among some peoples became a sibilant, while with others it remained an occlusive. There are satem peoples and centum peoples. The Hindus say çatám, the Iranians said satem, and the Lithuanians szim+̂tas, whereas the Latins said centum. The Goths said hund, the Greeks ἐκατóν. The Irish said cét, now céad, and the Welsh say cant. Celtic, therefore, is one of the centum languages.1 The value of the distinction appears problematical and the attachment of Celtic to the centum group of little significance, if we remember that French, which is one of the heirs of Celtic, has transformed the Latin occlusive into a sibilant. But one should mention the matter.

But let us consider Fig. 1 for a moment. This diagram, devised by M. Meillet,2 shows the Indo-European languages grouped according to their affinities. At the same time it shows their topographical distribution. The vertical diameter divides the satem peoples from the centum peoples. Each group is continuous. The dialects of each have been spoken by peoples which are or were neighbours. We shall see other evidences of their kinship. The symbol chosen is not perhaps the most expressive possible, but the thing symbolized is certain.

One group is missing from the diagram, namely the Tokharians of Turkestan. They, surrounded by peoples which spoke languages of the satem type, Indian or Iranian, spoke languages of the centum type. But we have more than

____________________
1
S. Feist, CCCXXVI, p. 50.
2
CCXVI, p. 134.

-53-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
The Rise of the Celts
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 338

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.