CHAPTER V
CELTIC EXPANSION ON THE CONTINENT IN THE HALLSTATT PERIOD (continued). THE CELTS IN SPAIN

I
CELTIC CEMETERIES AND TUMULI

T HE drive to the south-west was not exhausted when it reached the Pyrenees. Many bodies crossed them.

We must observe first of all that they never lost contact with the settlements in Aquitaine. In the tombs of that region, more particularly near the Pyrenees, objects are found which are really Spanish, invented south of the Pyrenees, where they were copied from Greek or Italic models. Such, for instance, are the belt-clasps (Fig. 42).1 The presence of these Spanish objects helps to give the Hallstatt civilization of Aquitaine its characteristic appearance, which is so different from that of all other parts of the Celtic world. It also shows that the settlements to the north of the Pyrenees and those to the south constituted one single group, a single racial unit, the connecting links of which we may usefully consider (Map 12).

There have been found south of the Pyrenees a series of tumuli with cremations, and also cemeteries -- very large ones -- with cremations, dating from the end of the third Hallstatt period. The tumulus without any interior chamber and the practice of cremation were alike novelties in Spain at this time. These tumuli and cemeteries are dated by brooches of the various types already mentioned, swords with antennæ, and pottery like the Pyrenean wares of France.

____________________
1
These belt-clasps are related to the Hallstatt clasps with a single hook of Central Europe; they differ from them in having more than one hook and in having oblong holes in the base of the hooks. Clasps of this kind have been found at Olympia and in the ruins of the Greek colony of Ampurias. From this Déchelette concludes that they were Greek ( "Agrafes de ceinturon ibériques d'origine grecque", in CLXXXV). Bosch Gimpera thinks that they may have come to these places as trophies, or that they belonged to auxiliaries ( CCCCXCIX, p. 30). For the archæology of the Celts in the Peninsula, see Bosch Gimpera, "L'Arqueologia y l'arte ibericas", vol. i. Etnologia de la Peninsula iberica, pp. 452 ff., Barcelona, 1931.

-282-

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